Globalization has been regarded as an opportunity and threat for the ages. Globalization is a multidisciplinary and integrated phenomenon in the financial, cultural, and political sectors.
Several non-governmental sectors are formed to ensure that the governments nationwide are working effectively for the citizens.
Globalization is the dynamic process of exchanging ideas, thoughts, and interactions among citizens and private and governmental organizations.
It is difficult to line up the powerful government as a team and enforce the determined norms and regulations.
Globalization’s impact is noticeable and mainly impacts the politics and economic sectors.
The influence of the economic sectors is dominated by political and social globalization, due to which governance is required to shape the structure of the world.
After the Second World War, with the industrial and technological progress revolution, the agreements on political and economic subjects were viewed and accelerated with war.
William R. Thompson defined political globalization as expanding the political system globally, throughout the institutions beyond trading and marketing.
Political globalization is the current term that came into focus back at the end of the 20th century.
The idea is prevalent in the presence of influence or power of specific organizations such as the European Union, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, and World Trade Organizations.
The leaders from international organizations play a huge role in shaping domestic political integration.
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Examples of political globalization
The supporter states that the EU has created a harmonious relationship between the European nations after World War II.
The wars and disputes among the European nations have declined through interdependent actions.
NATO (The North American Treaty Organization)
After world war second, another multinational political treaty was formed, NATO. The main objective of NATO is to create a military pact that determines Russian aggression. If other non-NATO countries attack any nation from NATO, the war begins.
The Belt and Road Initiative
The Belt and Road initiative was initiated to spread the influence of Chinese actions across the Middle East and Asian nations.
The critics state that this initiative often puts the developing nations in debt so that China can liberate the power over the nations.
Yearly war games are held between the allied nations to protect freedom and strengthen military powers.
Such political diplomacy is shaped to promote military pacts and defense during actual foreign attacks.
Pros of Political globalization
With political globalization, the decentralization of power among the national and international governments is felt.
People nationwide work together for universal justice and discover solutions to avoid conflicts and the cold war.
In the positive context, the accessibility to quality education has increased nationwide and has reached an extreme rate compared to historical data.
The tolerance of sexual and political abuse has been posed towards the more significant part of the world.
The peaceful union is created by emphasizing the political and economic dimension, which is a win-win situation.
The role of political globalization is to force the national government to adopt effective global institutions and changes.
Democratization and creating a well-civilized society can be seen with the introduction of political globalization.
Politics is the backbone of the financial sectors that ensure the open market sources, flow of capital, and safety and security of the nations in need and crisis.
The promotional and upgrading activities of the international state like the UN and WHO are influenced by governmental actions, which take place at the international level.
Some benefits of globalization are:
1. Establishment of international values and norms
The nations work as a team with the signed treaties and agreements, helping each other build strong without harming the representative countries.
Rule-based signed orders reduce the risk of abusing the labor standard, intellectual property, and environmental property.
2. Ease of movement
The European Union has established freedom to migrate throughout the 27 European states.
The agreements between the cross-country governmental nations ease the migration for labor or to gain an education.
Based on these criteria, millions of people can travel freely between national borders for various opportunities.
3. Ease of trade
The primary objective of political or economic globalization is to ease the trading system and enhance the imports and exporting of goods to promote the economic growth of the nations.
In the free trade agreements, the developed nations that are good at producing services are considered the global ‘hubs’ that can relocate the materials throughout the nations, promoting the international trade.
4. Initiating blocs of influence
With the agreements between the political parties and the multinational states, the bloc is created between the nations that work together and appear more robust than the particular nation.
For example, African countries and a few pacific nations came together to vote as part of the blocs In the United Nations.
5. Solving the global issues
Global issues such as climate change can be overcome only through international participation.
In Australian politics, they state that they can alone reduce carbon emissions to save the world from global warming.
The impacts and effectiveness of solving climate change are possible only by creating a worldwide pact and agreeing to meet the emissions targets.
The depletion of the ozone layer and climate change can only be solved if there is cultural globalization among nations.
Other pros of political globalization
- The effects of globalization have accessed international funds and financial support.
- The aspect of globalization reduces the barriers to migration and trade, including the joint decision to set up the standard for labor, intellectual property, and environmental protection activities.
- The chances of conflicts have been reduced, contributing to world peace due to the influence of globalization. The peacekeeping organizations are recognized as the platform to spread norms and values on the importance of peace and freedom.
- Political activities can be trained effectively by positive influence from other developed countries, and poor countries can gain power by working in unity.
- The change in the legislation that has encouraged both the national and international nations to cooperate, promote trade, and solve climate change has been noted.
- The accessibility to information has made human relations around the world stronger.
- Human rights are valued worldwide as it has become universal and globally acceptable.
Cons of Political globalization
The significant cons of political globalization can be pointed out even though the extent of globalization is at a developing pace.
Border encroachment is highly noticed in part of some poorer countries with positive associations with globalization.
The ultranationalist groups have been increased by losing freedom among the citizens themselves.
With losing the power of the democratically elected bodies, losing the capacity to make a decision is evenly noticed.
Technological innovation and the internet have positively influenced knowledge, but the population with a cosmopolitan conception has risen.
Political globalization explains the strength of forming the international framework to promote cooperation and unity between nations in equal ratios. It dominates developing countries by using military powers.
According to the opponents of political globalization, it leads to inequality, unemployment, and autocracy and reduces economic growth. The impact of political globalization is more disturbing and is regarded as a threat.
1. Losing the power at the national level
While making the agreements with the host country, the government has to sacrifice freedom on some level to reach the middle ground.
The poorest countries have to go through negative economic growth to reduce carbon emissions as the industrialized nation suffers a considerable loss.
The government even has to agree on specific norms and values that prevent the potential to take unilateral action.
Despite losing the sovereignty of the nations in decision-making, it is outweighed by the great advantage that positively influences the whole country.
2. Levels of bureaucracy
The level of bureaucracy is viewed to rise, evidenced by the burden of signing the multinational agreement.
Such as, the budget of the EU is €157.9 billion, which needs to be paid by all representative nations.
Globalization is a complex process that impacts all sectors and activities to a greater or a lesser extent.
3. Reduce political accountability
The members of WTO, EU, and other multinational organizations are members who reached the position without being elected.
They made decisions by the members of organizations that are not accountable for the impact observed on their fellow citizens.
The leaders conclude the agreements between the nations and other participants. Thus political globalization lacks accountability.
Other cons of political globalization
- The liberty among the states degrades the function of supranational organizations as it is more autocratic than democratic.
- High-cost countries such as the United States and European countries play a role in decision-making, slowing down the decisions of middle-income countries.
- Political stability has been less likely and more common than a military conflict in recent years.
- The role of national states has declined due to the influence of the powerful political system of international bodies.
- Coordination and cooperation among the global conditions are more complex and expensive.
- Confrontations are less visible between the political system and supranational organization, to which tension is created.
- The native citizens fear losing their national identity and culture as political globalization expands.
- People criticize that political globalization creates neo-colonialism, which dominates the other nation by controlling the cultural and economic sectors.
- Political globalization leads to disputes in trading sectors between countries.
Political globalization is a one-way process that is multidimensional. A timetable is formed through the political system to solve the prioritized global issues.
Behind many decisions, globalization is mainly regarded as economic, and the conclusions drawn from the political power are somewhat forgotten.
The liberalization among the market and industries is determined by the political power influencing the large companies in many ways.
Summarizing the points, despite the influences we notice on impacts of globalization respective to economic, political, or cultural ways, the pros and cons are discovered in considerable numbers. The challenge concerned with globalization is observed in political sectors mainly.
Because of the fear of losing sovereignty, the nation poses difficulty while contributing to unity.
In the political view, globalization can be experienced positively only when the political power of the representative country acts effectively in the system, impacting multinational corporations.
Thus, to achieve the goal of political globalization, it is essential to create peaceful unity and competition rather than conflict and the cold war.
(Last Updated on September 6, 2022)